In 1914 a Roman stilus-tablet was discovered during commercial digging of an artificial dwelling mound (terp) near Groot Tolsum in the Netherlands, the region inhabited in Roman times by the tribe of the Frisii. The tablet (collection Fries Museum Leeuwarden, inv. 123-346), known as the Emptio Bovis Frisica, was first published by prof. C.W. Vollgraff in 1917, who interpreted the text as a sale of an ox.
In 2009 a new edition, an initiative of Fries Museum and Tresoar, was presented at the conference ‘The Tolsum Secret’. The new edition is published by prof. A.K. Bowman, dr. R.S.O. Tomlin (both from University of Oxford) and prof. K.A. Worp (from Leiden University) and presents another interpretation: the tablet is the second half of a loan-note for a sum of money now lost, between a debtor whose name is lost and a creditor named Carus (or perhaps Andecarus) who is a slave of Iulia(?) Secunda, herself perhaps the wife of a tribune of Legio V named T(itus) Cassius. The date of the text is 23 (?) February 29 AD.